The Dick and Carey Model is an instructional design model developed by Walter Dick and Lou Carey. It provides a systematic approach to instructional design and focuses on analyzing, designing, and developing effective instructional materials.
Here’s an overview of the model’s nine elements:
Identify instructional goals: The first step is to clearly define the instructional goals and objectives. This involves identifying what learners should be able to do after completing the instruction.
Conduct instructional analysis: In this phase, the instructional designer analyzes the target learners, their characteristics, and their existing knowledge and skills. The goal is to understand the learners’ needs and determine what needs to be taught.
Identify entry behaviors: Entry behaviors refer to the prerequisite knowledge and skills that learners need to possess before starting the instruction. Identifying these behaviors helps ensure that learners have the necessary foundation to succeed in the instruction.
Write performance objectives: Performance objectives are specific statements that describe what learners will be able to do after completing the instruction. These objectives should be measurable and observable to guide the design process.
Develop an instructional strategy: The instructional strategy outlines the overall approach to deliver the instruction. It includes decisions about the sequencing of content, instructional methods, media selection, and assessment strategies.
Develop and select instructional materials: This step involves creating or selecting the instructional materials that will be used to deliver the instruction. It can include textbooks, multimedia resources, handouts, online modules, or any other materials needed to support learning.
Design and conduct formative evaluation: Formative evaluation involves testing and refining the instructional materials before their full implementation. It helps identify any issues or areas for improvement and ensures that the materials align with the instructional goals and objectives.
Revise instruction: Based on the feedback received during the formative evaluation, the instructional materials are revised and refined. This iterative process helps improve the effectiveness of the instruction.
Design and conduct summative evaluation: The final step involves conducting a summative evaluation to assess the overall effectiveness of the instruction. This evaluation determines if the instructional goals have been met and provides feedback for future improvements.
The Dick and Carey Model provides a comprehensive framework for instructional design, focusing on analysis, design, and development stages. It emphasizes the importance of aligning instruction with learner needs and ensuring that instructional materials are effective and efficient. By following this model, instructional designers can create well-structured and goal-oriented learning experiences.